BCAA – de ce sa obtii mai mult cand poti sa obtii mai putin sau nimic?

  1. BCAA-nutritie-sportiva

In ciuda popularitatii imense a aminoacizilor esentiali cu lant ramificat (BCAA = leucina, izoleucina si valina) si in ciuda faptului ca leucina este aminoacidul esential sintezei proteice musculare si a faptului ca izoleucina stimuleaza patrunderea glucozei in celula musculara, studiile de nutritie sportiva care au analizat eficienta BCAA nu au demonstrat efectul ergogenic atat de important pentru atleti.

 

Iar aportul celor trei aminoacizi ramificati poate fi optim acoperit prin consumul normal de carne, oua sau suplimente cu proteine din zer. (Burke 2001; Bilsborough si Mann, 2006)

 

Astfel, daca luam in calcul aportul alimentar si folosirea suplimentelor cu proteine din zer (whey proteins) – BCAA este raspunsul pur la intrebarea “De ce sa obtii mai mult cand poti sa obtii mai putin?”

 

Intrebare – desi evident incredibila daca este sa evaluam raportul beneficiu/pret – complet ignorata de sportivii amatori sau sedentarii in cautare de suplimente minune promovate prin exemplu personal si nu pe baza de argumente stiintifice.

 

Iata ce spune literatura stiintifica actuala despre efectele suplimentarii cu BCAA:

 

1) studiile realizate pe animale demonstreaza ca suplimentarea cu BCAA este nociva pentru sanatate si performanta:

 

 

2) studiile realizate pe persoane sedentare demonstreaza ca suplimentarea cu BCAA poate fi benefica in perioada de inceput a practicarii sportului:

 

 

3) studiile realizate pe sportivi amatori sunt contradictorii, unele demonstrand ca suplimentarea cu BCAA previne oboseala sau pierderea de masa musculara, altele ca BCAA nu are nici un efect benefic:

 

  • reduce febra musculara si perceptia oboselii in cazul alergatorilor pe distante mari. (Matsumoto si colab., 2009)
  • previne proteoliza in cazul inotatorilor amatori. (Tang, 2006)
  • poate amana aparitia oboselii central in cazul sportivilor amatori, insa efectul poate fi compensat de consumul de carbohidrati pe parcursul efortului fizic. (Blomstrand, 2006)
  • desi poate amana aparitia oboselii in cazul alergatorilor inceti, BCAA nu are nici un efect in cazul alergatorilor rapizi. (Blomstrand si colab., 1991, Burke, 2001)
  • sustine mentinerea masei musculare in conditii de restrictie calorica – (Dudgeon, Kelley & Scheett, 2016)
  • nu sustine mentinerea masei musculare in conditii de restrictie calorica, avand un potential impact negativ datorita inhibitiei competitive dintre acesti aminoacizi – (Dieter, Schoenfeld & Aragon, 2016)
  • nu imbunatateste capacitatea de mentinere a efortului fizic maximal, neavand nici un efect asupra timpului de efort pana la epuizare. (Williams, 1999)
  • suplimentarea cu 9g BCAA/ zi nu imbunatateste compozitia corporala sau performanta musculara in cazul unui antrenament de rezistenta de inalta intensitate. (Spillane, Emerson si Willoughby, 2012)
  • suplimentarea cu BCAA dupa antrenamente de rezistenta nu determina cresterea sintezei proteice musculara – (Ferreira si colab., 2014)

 

4) studiile realizate pe sportivi de inalta performanta lipsesc.

 

In functie de categoria din care faci parte, poti decide daca are sens macar sa iei in considerare BCAA.

 

Suplimentarea cu BCAA nu este necesara niciunui sportiv amator sau profesionist care se hidrateaza corespunzator pe parcursul antrenamentului, ia proteine din zer imediat dupa antrenament si are un aport proteic de minim 1-1,5g proteine/ kg corp fie din carne, oua si lactate.

 

Fiecare este liber sa isi arunce banii pe ce vor muschii lui. Doar sa nu isi arunce si muschii pe ce vor muschii lui – ca de, in afara de placa neuromusculara, muschii nu prea au sinapse.

 

Studii citate

 

Bilsborough, Shane, and Neil Mann. “A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans.” International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 16.2 (2006): 129.

 

Blomstrand, E., et al. “Administration of branched-chain amino acids during sustained exercise—effects on performance and on plasma concentration of some amino acids.” European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology 63.2 (1991): 83-88.

 

Blomstrand, Eva. “A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue.” The Journal of nutrition 136.2 (2006): 544S-547S.

 

Burke, Louise M. “Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) and Athletic Performance.” International SportMed Journal 2.3 (2001).

 

Choi S, Disilvio B, Fernstrom MH, Fernstrom JD. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines. Amino Acids. 2013 Aug 1.

 

Dieter, B. P., Schoenfeld, B. J., & Aragon, A. A. (2016). The data do not seem to support a benefit to BCAA supplementation during periods of caloric restriction. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition13(1), 21.

 

Dudgeon, W. D., Kelley, E. P., & Scheett, T. P. (2016). In a single-blind, matched group design: branched-chain amino acid supplementation and resistance training maintains lean body mass during a caloric restricted diet. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition13(1), 1.

 

Falavigna, Gina, et al. “Effects of diets supplemented with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and fatigue mechanisms of rats submitted to prolonged physical exercise.” Nutrients 4.11 (2012): 1767-1780.

 

Ferreira, M. P., Li, R., Cooke, M., Kreider, R. B., & Willoughby, D. S. (2014). Periexercise coingestion of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate in men does not preferentially augment resistance exercise–induced increases in phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B–mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis. Nutrition Research34(3), 191-198.

 

Holeček, Milan, et al. “Alterations in protein and amino acid metabolism in rats fed a branched-chain amino acid-or leucine-enriched diet during postprandial and postabsorptive states.” Nutrition & metabolism 13.1 (2016): 1.

 

Jackman, Sarah R., et al. “Branched-chain amino acid ingestion can ameliorate soreness from eccentric exercise.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 42.5 (2010): 962-970.

 

Kim, Dong-Hee, et al. “Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.” Journal of Exercise Nutrition and Biochemistry 17.4 (2013): 169-180.

 

Matsumoto, K., et al. “Branched-chain amino acid supplementation attenuates muscle soreness, muscle damage and inflammation during an intensive training program.” Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 49.4 (2009): 424.

 

Newgard, Christopher B., et al. “A branched-chain amino acid-related metabolic signature that differentiates obese and lean humans and contributes to insulin resistance.” Cell metabolism 9.4 (2009): 311-326.

 

Shimomura, Yoshiharu, et al. “Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness.” International journal of sport nutrition 20.3 (2010): 236.

 

Spillane, Mike, Christamarie Emerson, and Darryn S. Willoughby. “The effects of 8 weeks of heavy resistance training and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and muscle performance.” Nutrition and health 21.4 (2012): 263-273.

 

Tang, Fu-Chun. “Influence of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on urinary protein metabolite concentrations after swimming.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25.3 (2006): 188-194.

 

Williams, Melvin H. “Facts and fallacies of purported ergogenic amino acid supplements.” Clinics in sports medicine 18.3 (1999): 633-649.

 

 

 

 

Despre Autor

Diana Artene

Sunt Nutritionist-Dietetician, Master in Nutritie si Doctor in Nutritie Oncologica, Nutritionist Sportiv acreditat de Societatea Internationala de Nutritie Sportiva si membru al American Society for Nutrition și al European Society of Medical Oncology.